Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
- The sample can be taken with an Endocervical swab.
- Take a biopsy sample from the affected tissue.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) belongs to the Papovaviridae family.
- This is also called the wart virus.
- This is 44 to 55 nm.
- This is a double-stranded DNA virus.
- This is icosahedral, and no envelop.
- This virus can cause the infection of :
- Hands, feet, arms, and forehead.
- In the case of cervical lesions, HPV types 6 and 11 are associated with low-grade malignancy.
- HPV types 31, 33, and 35 are seen in low-grade malignancy.
- HPV types 16 and 18 are found in high-grade malignancy.
- This virus causes cervical cancers and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
- Its incubation period is 1 to 8 months for warts once the virus settles in the area.
- Genital warts develop 1 to 3 months.
- The wart is more common in children and young adults. These are uncommon in older adults.
- Structure of the papillomavirus:
- Papillomaviruses are non-enveloped viruses without a lipid layer and there is a capsid consisting of protein.
- There is double-stranded DNA in a circular shape.
- The size is roughly 52 to 55 nm.
- Mode of spread: This spreads :
- In genitalia through sexual contacts (unprotected anal, vaginal, or oral sex).
- Transmission of cutaneous HPV is by direct contact, skin to skin (handshakes or hugs).
- This may spread during pregnancy (mother to baby, labor, and nursing).
- Some people have no symptoms but they can spread the disease through sexual contacts.
- Signs and symptoms are dependents in the area involved:
- warts are tender when these are irritated.
- Warts are seen on hands, feet, arms, forehead, larynx, and genitalia.
- Anal warts cause itching called venereal wart Condylomata.
- Palmer warts are sensitive to pressure.
- This may become chronic and may last many years or lifelong.
- In the USA this disease is very common, roughly 3 million cases are reported.
- Another reference says 80 million cases in the USA according to CDC.
- 14 million people including teenagers will suffer from this infection each year.
- It can find the virus in Papanicolaou stain cells of the cervical smear.
- Or can advise liquid-based cytology.
- PCR for detection of the HPV.
- HPV DNA hybridization technology.
- Warts need surgical excision.
- Also, can try electro dissection.
- Can use acid.
- It can use freezing with liquid nitrogen.
- Sometime it may disappear without any treatment.
The complication of human papillomavirus:
- The most common complication is cervical cancers in the female. It is found in 90% of cases.
- This is also found in the cancers of the vulva, penis, anal canal, and head and neck.
- Avoid contact with HPV positive patients.
- Condoms use can prevent infection.
- The vaccine can be recommended to prevent HPV (for genital warts, and cervical cancers).
- HPV vaccine Cervarix prevents the type 16 and 18.
- These types are 70% cause of cervical cancers.
- All boys and girls need to be vaccinated at the age of 11 or 12 years.