Glycemic Index and Diabetes Mellitus
Definition of Glycemic Index
- Glycemic Index is defined as a system where foods are classified according to their breakdown into carbohydrates, and in turn, these split into simple sugars (Glucose) and enter the bloodstream.
- A low Glycemic Index means a smaller rise in the blood glucose level.
Benefits of a low Glycemic Index diet:
- Low Glycemic Index foods help to control the blood glucose level.
- Low Glycemic Index foods contain more fibers, so keep feeling the fullness of the stomach.
- Low Glycemic Index foods help to lose weight.
- Low Glycemic Index foods make you less tired and lethargic.
- Low Glycemic Index foods increase physical endurance.
- Reduce insulin level.
- Lower cholesterol level.
- It helps to control appetite.
- It lowers the risk of heart disease and diabetes mellitus.
Healthy diet principles:
- Try to eat different groups of foods. Try to maintain a balance in different groups of foods.
- Try to eat regularly at the same time and never miss a meal.
- Try to eat more fruits and vegetables, at least 4 to 5 portion/day.
- Try to choose a high-fiber diet and whole wheat products.
- Try to eat fish 3 to 4 times/week.
- Try to use healthy fats like:
- Olives and olive oil.
- Raw nuts.
- Raw seeds.
- Lean white meat.
- Following the above rules will give your body all essential nutrients like proteins, vitamins, fats, fibers, and minerals.
Importance of carbohydrates:
- Carbohydrates are a vital source of energy for our body and are found in all plants and foods like fruits, vegetables, grains, and cereals.
- Carbohydrates are converted into glucose, and that is the source of energy for:
- Universal fuel for our body cells.
- This is the sole energy source for RBCs.
- This is the source of the brain and fetus.
- It is the source of energy for our body muscles, especially during exercise.
- Do not ignore complex carbohydrates. Always think about a low Glycemic index diet. Also, keep attention to high glycemic index carbohydrates.
Glycemic index rating:
- The glycemic index rates carbohydrates foods from 0 to 100, depending on the rise in blood sugar (Glucose) level.
- Rise in the blood sugars graded into:
- The dramatic rise in glucose level.
- A moderate rise in glucose level.
- Low rise in glucose level.
- One should aim at the low glycemic index diet.
- These foods are classified on the basis of glycemic index as follows:
- Foods that take longer to absorb are rated as <55.
- Foods that take a moderate amount of time to be absorbed are rated as 55 to 70.
- Foods that are quickly absorbed are rated >70.
- We will see the list of these three groups of foods.
- The group is worse foods are quickly absorbed and may give rise to a spike in the glucose in the blood.
- We should try limiting foods with a glycemic index of <50.
The glycemic index (GI) of good foods (GI <55):
|Foods||Glycemic index||Foods||Glycemic index|
|Mix grain bread||48||Cherries||22|
|German rye bread||50||Plums||39|
|Brown basmati rice||52||Kiwifruit||53|
|Pearl barley||31||Pineapple juice||46|
The glycemic index (GI) of bad foods (GI 55 to 70):
|Foods||The glycemic index (GI)||Foods||The glycemic index (GI)|
|Boiled mashed potato||70||Raisin||64|
|White pita bread||Miscellaneous|
|hamburger buns||61||Ice cream||61|
|Whole wheat bread||69||Honey||58|
|High-fiber wheat bread||68||Oatmeal||55|
|Rye flour bread||64||Shortbread||64|
|White basmati rice||58||Granola cereals||56|
|Bran cereal||Digestive biscuits||59|
|White granulated sugars||64|
|Orange juice (Fruit 10% to 15%)||66|
The glycemic index (GI) of worse foods (GI >70):
|Foods||The glycemic index||Foods||The glycemic index|
|Baked potato||85||Corn flakes||83|
|Cooked carrot||85||Cripsed rice||82|
|Rutabaga||72||Bran flakes with dried fruits||71|
|White wheat bread||78||High-glucose sports drink||95|
|French banquette||95||Fava beans||79|
|Gluten-free bread||90||Corn tortillas||74|
|White rice||88||Rice cakes||77|
How to start a Low glycemic index diet:
- When you start a low glycemic diet, start with the following:
- Eat more vegetables and fruits. Try to use legumes and whole-grain products, like barley and oats.
- Pay attention to the bread and cereals glycemic index. American diets have mostly high glycemic index.
- Try to minimize refined flour products and starches like pastries, cakes, cookies, rolls, and crackers. Do not consider their fat contents and sugar contents.
- Avoid high glycemic foods like pretzels, rice crackers, crackers, and corn chips.
- Always check the glycemic index of the things you are eating.
- You may find that most of the common brand cereals may have a high glycemic index of >70.
- Always try to find low glycemic index (GI) bread.
- Eat fruits as snacks and drink low-fat milk and low-fat yogurt.
Summary of the foods according to the glycemic index:
|The low glycemic index foods (<55)||Medium glycemic index foods (55 to 69)||High glycemic index foods (>70)|
|Baked beans||Beets||Baked potatoes|
|Sweet potatoes||New potatoes||Mashed potatoes|
|Sweet corn||French fries|
|Pasta||Basmati rice||Jasmine rice|
|Fruit bread||Croissant||White bread|
|Whole-grain bread||Pita bread||Doughnuts|
|Flavored milk||Soft drinks|