Semen:- part 3 – Sperm Antibody, Anti Sperm-antibody, Anti Spermatozoa antibody
Sample for Anti Sperm-antibody
- This is done on the fresh semen of the patient and sample preferred by masturbation.
- First, urinate and then clean and wash the penis before collecting the sample.
- Keep the sample at body temperature if collected at home.
- The sample cannot be collected by sexual intercourse because there will be contamination by vaginal secretion.
- Take the blood of the male and female for serum preparation.
- Collect cervical mucus from the female.
Purpose of the test (Indications) for Anti Sperm-antibody
- This is a screening test for an infertile couple.
- This detects antibodies against spermatozoa.
Pathophysiology of Anti Sperm-antibody
- Sperm antibodies are directed against the sperm antigen.
- Antisperm antibodies are found in:
- Men with the blocked efferent duct.
- Men with a vasectomy show a 30% to 70% antibody.
Mechanism of antibody formation:
- Sperm from the blocked ducts gives rise to autoantibody formation as the immune system recognizes these as foreign substances.
- These antibodies are agglutinin or cytotoxic.
- The antisperm antibody of IgA type is against the tail of sperm, and they inhibit the motility and decrease the penetration of cervical mucus.
- Sperm antibody of IgG type blocks sperm-ovum fusion.
- A high titer of sperm antibodies is strong evidence of infertility.
- Sperm antibodies are found in 20% of females. Their presence in the female significance is unclear because some of these ladies may become pregnant.
- In some studies :
- Women with primary infertility are 75% positive for sperm agglutinin antibodies.
- 11 to 15% of pregnant ladies show the same level of sperm antibodies.
Normal sperm antibody
Anti-sperm antibodies are seen in the following:
- Blockage of testicular efferent ducts.
- After the vasectomy, almost every male has an antisperm antibody. After the reversal of the vasectomy antisperm antibody disappears.
- Infertility. This may be seen in both males and females.
Treatment of sperm antibody:
To treat antisperm antibodies, the possibilities are:
- Use of the condom.
- Sperms are processed to remove the antibodies.
- Immunosuppressive therapy can be given both in males and females.
- Invitro fertilization (IVF) can be tried.
Questions and answers:
Question 1: What type of antibody forms against the tail of sperm?
IgA antibody forms against the tail of sperm.
Question 2: How to get rid of anti-sperm antibody?
Can try In-vitro fertilization (IVF).