Aldolase level, and Its Significance
Sample for Aldolase
- It is done on the Serum of the patient.
- Patients should fast for 8 hours before giving the sample.
- Take 3 to 5 ml of blood in the disposable syringe. Keep the syringe for 15 to 30 minutes, and then centrifuge for 2 to 4 minutes. Can get a clear serum.
- Avoid hemolysis and separate serum immediately.
- It is stable for:
- 8 hours at room temperature.
- 4 °C for 5 days.
- -15 °C for 15 days.
Precautions for Aldolase level
- The previous muscular injection may increase the aldolase level.
- Hemolysis and exposure to chlorinated insecticide may increase the level.
- Hepatotoxic drugs may increase the level.
- The phenothiazine may decrease the aldolase level.
Indications for Aldolase level
- This test is indicated when inflammatory diseases of the muscles (myopathy) are suspected.
- To assess the severity of myopathy.
- Other tests like Lactate dehydrogenase, Creatinine Phosphokinase, and Aspartate transferase are advised and are helpful for the diagnosis, So this test is no more recommended.
Pathophysiology of Aldolase level
Definition of the aldolase enzyme:
- Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that splits fructose-1,6-phosphatase into two triose phosphate molecules in glucose metabolism.
- Aldolase is present in all tissue like the brain and kidneys and is prominent in skeletal and heart muscles.
- Aldolase enzyme is present in the cell and the nucleus.
Aldolase chemical reaction:
- It converts sugar to energy.
- Aldolase is described in different forms like:
- Aldolase A occurs in most of the tissue.
- Aldolase B is seen in the liver and kidneys.
- This is a glycolytic enzyme, and it cleaves fructose 1,6 – bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3 – phosphate.
- Fructose-1-phosphate is split into D-glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase B, that enzyme is found in the liver.
- Aldolase also takes part in glycolysis by attacking the fructose-1-6-PO4.
Clinical significance of Aldolase:
- For the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy, these tests are advised, CPK, AST, and Aldolase.
- The major use of aldolase is for the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis.
- CPK is also raised, which is more sensitive and specific, so aldolase is not recommended.
- This is greatly increased in the Duchenne-type pseudo hypertrophic muscle dystrophy compared to other muscular diseases.
- It is high in the early stage.
- But it falls as the disease progresses.
- There is a 10 to 15 times increase than the normal level.
- This is raised in dermatomyositis and limb-girdle dystrophy.
- Normal values are seen in poliomyelitis, myasthenia gravis, and multiple sclerosis, where the origin of the muscle disease is neurogenic.
- It is usually normal in cirrhosis and obstructive jaundice.
- Aldolase pattern is like ALT, and it comes to normal in 10 to 15 days.
- This has the main interest in the primary disease of skeletal muscles.
- If the muscle disease is due to neurological causes, aldolase will be normal.
Normal Aldolase level
- Adult = 1.0 to 7.5 U /L
- Newborn = 4 x adult level
- Values are double in early childhood and then slowly fall to a normal level by the 18 to 20 years of age.
- Children 10 to 24 months = 3.4 to 11.8 U/L
- child 25 months to 16 years = 1.2 to 8.8 U/L
- Adult = 22 to 59 mU/L at 37 °C (SI unit)
- Child = Approximately 2 times the adult value.
- Newborn = Approximately 4 times the adult value.
- Adult/elderly = 3.0 to 8.2 U/dL (22 to 59 mU at 37 °C).
- Levels are slightly higher in men than women due to increased muscle mass.
- Newborn = 2 to 4 times the adult level.
- Child = Approximately twice the adult result.
The Aldolase level is increased in:
- Cell destruction like Acute myocardial infarction (5 to 8 times the normal).
- Acute Hepatitis (Viral or toxic). It is raised in the early stage of viral or toxic hepatitis.
- Inflammatory diseases of muscles (Myopathy).
- Raised in skeletal muscle disease or injury.
- Raised in Muscular dystrophy. It is raised in pseudo hypertrophic muscular dystrophy (as the CPK is also raised).
- Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.
- Trauma involving the muscles.
- Carcinoma of the prostate (about 6 times the normal).
- Cancer involving the lung, breast, liver, GIT, or genitourinary system.
- Myelocytic leukemia (about 6 times the normal).
- Megaloblastic and hemolytic anemia (about 10 to 13 times the normal).
- In neoplastic diseases like carcinomatous metastasis to liver, lung, breast, genitourinary system, melanoma, and CNS tumors.
- This may be raised in eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.
- Hemolytic anemia.
Normal Aldolase level:
- Neurogenic muscle atrophy.
- Cirrhosis (or maybe slightly increased).
- Obstructive jaundice (or maybe slightly increased).
Decreased Aldolase level is seen in:
- Hereditary fructose intolerance.
- This may indicate late muscular dystrophy.
- This test is nonspecific, so not commonly requested except for follow-up on muscle diseases.
- This is also not recommended due to the CPK raised level in all these conditions where aldolase is raised.
- The increase in the level reflects the intensity of the disease, and one can serially measure to know the effect of treatment by corticosteroids.
- CK is considered the choice of test for muscular diseases.
Question 1: What is the main function of Aldolase enzyme.
It is a marker of muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy. Now this test is replaced by the tests.
Question 2: What is the level of aldolase in neurogenic muscular atrophy.
It is normal in neurogenic muscular atrophy.